The Mogadishu Root cause Conflicts between the Presidents and the Prime Ministers
Years of warlord rule and physiognomies of an anarchical system based on fraudulent and political ailment between tribal warlords, the international community never halts nor get exhaust to support the Mogadishu based government for the last 23 years. In 2000, the Arab League led by the Egyptian government sponsored the electorally unfair conference of Arta for the interest of Egypt.
The conference has been installed a total partial, prejudiced and unbalanced tribal government of 4.5 representation model, which Somalia never experienced in its political lifetime. The elected Hawiye President Abdikasim Salad, who assumed the rank of gaining tribal supremacy of Hawiye over Darod was the virtuous systematic structure for Somali governance, appointed the third Darod Mogadishu Prime Minister Ali Khalif after Sharmarke and Abdirashid from the 1960s.
At the time, he believed, the militarily defeated Darod clan could also be conquered and subjugated politically and economically. Mathematically, the calculation of defeating over delivering power was the only political foul in Political Science, which means giving your opponent a sharp samurai sword, whilst having your potato knife, and still expect the desire to defeat.
This was an unpredicted political nomination. Because Darod desperately gave up the determination spirit of Somali politics, but unexpectedly, Hawiye delivered the unearned political hope to challenge them. This resulted that, Imprudently, Ali Khalif, a Ph.D. Holder on Public Administration, and a tribal expert elite together with his fellow advisers from his same clan, technically muddled through and managed the political war of the Hawiye assignment. The Prime Minister Ali Khalif designed to utilize the Arta Charter of Semi-Presidential State, where the President remains the Head of State and nothing more. In other words, back to the history of the Somali Republic, the country has experienced Semi-Presidential System after the unification of 1960. A President as Head of State and a powerful Prime Minister as the Head of the government. Mainly, this was the reason behind the political assassination of President Sharmarke, because Prime Minister Egal was a powerful Prime Minister, who fully controlled the government at the time.
Although, some political commentators, stated in their reports that Ali Khalif and Abdikasim Salad fought over the $15 million fund from Qatar and Saudi Arabia. It was obvious in the eyes of the Somali educated people that the war was beyond financial aid. Even though, the war was commonly between the above clans, surprisingly Majeerteen, which is Darod sub-clan became envious that the Prime Minister was not theirs. Eventually, they were responsible for the defeat of Prime Minister Galaydh. Vice-versa, the Hawiye sub-clan of Abgaal was in the mood to retaliate back from Haber-Gedir, and finally the alliance earned to come back to the political arena once again. Abgaal and Majeerteen used to be efficacious alliance, though the Majeerteen was always the political beneficiary. This led that Colonel Abdilahi Yousuf from Majeerteen to win the election from the General Assembly in Eldoret, a town in Western Kenya.
The new Somali history of another proxy war started soon after when the Transitional President Yousuf came into office. The Islamic Courts Union exposed their faces in the world and defeated the warlords. President Yousuf appointed Ali Geedi as a Prime Minister, who later turn out to be the most political amateur that Somalia ever had. Geedi’s plan was nothing more than to collect money from the fragile system, which became ill-equipped to deal with the man-made and natural disasters such as war and drought, and around more than a million dead in the South and Central Somalia alone, where Prime Minister Geedi originated. The conflict between Geedi and Yousuf started when another $32 million being given to the Transitional Federal Government by the Saudi government. As Abdilahi Yousuf was in control, he won the conflict over Geedi after the International Community overstretched the Prime Minister to resign. Hawiye acquired the chance back again, when Abdilahi Yousuf erroneously appointed Nur Ade, a retired political expert who later gained the hearts and the minds of the neighbouring countries and compelled President Yousuf to walk away from the entire system.
The tribal motivated back to square one politics caused that Hawiye again lost and misplaced control by supporting the unprofessional Pro-Arab leader of the Islamic Courts Union as a President. Every Prime Minister from there, who normally come from Darod, mostly Puntland (Majeerteen) was working to gain the leadership, and the political advantage of Somalia. Having said this, Darod believes to recuperate power only if Somalia is governed by Federal system, because their politicians are always putting and designing into their strategies, the idea of making the 18 regions, which benefited from the Siyad Barre regime into Functioning State Administrations within the Federal Republic of Somalia. President Sharrif, who excited nothing more than to remain office facilitated the Majerteen led agenda of Federalism and signed Garowe and Kampala Accords. After this scenario every Prime Minister from the Darod clan has been working the mission of Federalism to be implemented. Nothing is about money now, everything is about gaining tribal control politics within the Federal System in Mogadishu.
The Somali political charters as well as not referendumly approved constitution was nothing to do with the ongoing conflicts between the Presidents and the Prime Ministers of Somalia. There is an unfinished task between Darod and Hawiye all over the place. Let us look deeply into the latest recognised system of Somalia led by the incumbent President Hassan Sheikh, he thrived to change two regimes within two years by appointing three different Prime Ministers. The first Prime Minister of Hassan Sheikh administration was the coolest man that Hawiye ever gained. Unfortunately, in due course his stable, non-tribal affiliated politics has been converted by Darod after Hassan Sheikh’s political negligence and carelessness.
He mistakenly appointed the political cobra (the bald man, Abdiwali) who devoted to proceed the unfinished task soon after he came into office. President Hassan Sheikh writhed to defeat him after spending over a million dollar in order to get rid of him. Now the former Prime Minister who introduced the Somalia/Kenya Water Dispute has been appointed, because Hassan Sheikh and his advisors thought that Ambassador Sharmarke is merely seeking nothing more than money from the system. The Prime Minister has not yet announced his Cabinet Ministers, just because Mareehaan, who lost the subsequent former Prime Ministers pressured Majeerteen to finish the task, which Darod’s political survival depend on.
The very same mission, which eridicated the Mareehaan Prime Ministers (Saa’id and Abdiwali) by losing their seats. But the most astounding thing between these perpetual tribal conflicts, are more similar to the serial Tom and Jerry cartoon film, where Hawiye appears the strong but jester Tom, and Darod the weak and tactful Jerry. The despatched problems from Egypt plus supporting other Arab States are in place, where Ethiopia and Kenya are now capable to comprehend in order to sustain their security, socioeconomic and political stability. The political war between the Hawiye Presidents and the Darod Prime Ministers will never last, because this is not a problem of individual or tribal conflict alone, it also fuelled by other involvements from outside. But the one million question is, on the one hand, which nation states are with the Hawiye side? And on the other hand, why militarily defeated Darod is still in the level playing field when it comes to the political revenge strategic war?
Mohamed Hagi Mohamoud.
Department of Politics and International Studies.
The University of Warwick.